How do you get a moral ought from from what is (exists/being) http://www.philosophybro.com/2012/01/mailbag-monday-is-ought-problem.html Post Humean skepticism-> We know that exists in the universe in a way that is different than moral knowledge Kant-> (synthetic/analytic) (a priori/a posteriori) http://marklint.com/podcast/Prolegomena_Diagram2.png This has been a problem in ethics ever since the 1700‘s and in order to address this problem governmental theorists have used the idea of human nature, social contracts, and intuition pumps to try to come to an agreement. Kantian Intuition Pump-> Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law. http://www.philosophybro.com/2011/03/immanuel-kants-groundwork-for.html Utilitarian Intuition Pump -> Greatest good for the greatest number of people. http://www.philosophybro.com/2011/01/john-stuart-mills-what-utilitarianism.html Rawlsian Intuition Pump -> Viel of Ignorance, Reflective Equilibrium, Difference Principle http://www.philosophybro.com/search/label/John Rawls Nozican Intuition Pump-> Wilt Chamberlain Economy http://www.philosophybro.com/search/label/libertarianism Modern Evangelical Christian Intuition Pump -> What would Jesus do? The first problem is to find what truly is, the next problem is how do we derive moral knowledge from it.